Cardimax L Carnitine for Athletes

CARDIMAX L-Carnitine supports the Clark Ultramarathon Athletes.

Buy Now for Cardimax-Clark Ultramarathon Participants

L- Carnitine may be particularly important during periods of intense exercise as it may help to reduce post-exercise lactic acid accumulation and may increase maximal work output. It may also preserve muscle glycogen levels during exercise.  HARNESS YOUR OWN ENERGY!

What is L-Carnitine

  • Carnitine is a substance that helps the body turn fat into energy. Your body makes it in the liver and kidneys and stores it in the skeletal muscles, heart, brain, and sperm. (Reference: University of Maryland Medical Center website)(Link: umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/carnitine-lcarnitine)
  • An amino acid-like and vitamin-like nutrient found naturally within the human body
  • Is an important factor in energy metabolism and therefore is frequently referred to as the “energy nutrient”
  • The human body synthesizes about 20 mg of L-Carnitine every day, in the liver and kidneys.(Reference: The Carnitine Miracle by Robert Crayhon M.S.)

Biochemical Functions of L-Carnitine:

  • Fat Transport and Beta Oxidation: L-Carnitine is essential for transporting long chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane, for subsequent fat breakdown and energy production.
  • Removal of Acetyl Units: Carnitine shuttles fats into the matrix, preventing the accumulation of acyl units inside the matrix.
  • Medium-Chain Triglycerides: Carnitine acts to enhance the removal of short and medium chain-acyl units from inside the mitochondria. These reactions are catalyzed by a group of enzymes called short-chain and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases .
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism: A study by Cederblad and Colleagues, muscle biopsies of human volunteers were used to assess the relationship between muscle carnitine levels and the activities of various metabolic pathways in muscles. As expected, the carnitine concentration of skeletal muscle was found to be directly related to the speed at which fat was converted to carbon dioxide (via beta-oxidation).
  • BCAA Metabolism: Studies have shown that carnitine levels are linked to the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA’s), considered the most important amino acids for sports performance.
  • Lactate Clearance: Carnitine has been shown to play a role in the removal of lactic acid from blood and tissues. In one study, for example, the rise in blood lactic acid after exercise was 107% in controls but only 54% in the carnitine-treated group.
  • Carnitine and Hormones: Carnitine is known to be intimately involved with thyroid hormones (a major hormone system crucial for fat burning). Hypothyroidism is characterized by fat accumulation, decreased fat burning, and low levels of carnitine and carnitine-requiring enzymes.
  • Ammonia Detoxification: Studies have shown that carnitine can enhance the removal of ammonia and, hence, its detoxification. Toxicological studies have revealed a marked protective effect of carnitine against ammonia poisoning.
  • Several other potential biochemical functions have been reported for Carnitine. It is thought to influence the levels of certain neurotransmitters (such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and taurine) in brain tissue, the detoxification of certain drugs, and the release of oxygen radicals from activated neutrophils.(Reference: The Carnitine Miracle by Robert Crayhon M.S.)

Benefit of L-Carnitine for Athletes:

L-Carnitine acts as an ergogenic and anti-catabolic agent for sports performance in athletes. Its supplementation can be benefited as follows:

  • Increased utilisation of free fatty acids for energy for increased muscle and heart energy in endurance sports (ergogenic aid)
  • Increased ‘Glycogen Sparing’ effect in endurance athletes, may provide protection for muscle glycogen stores, which are at risk during periods of increased exercise (anti-catabolic)
  • Reduced lactic acid concentration in muscle leads to a delay in the onset of muscular fatigue and cramps
  • Increased peripheral blood supply provides more oxygen absorption and leads to more energy production in aerobic exercise
  • Increased BCAA metabolism to yield more energy and production of glucose
  • Enhanced removal of ammonia and its detoxification
  • Increased protection to immune system and improved membrane stability during intense physical exercise.

More recently, studies have shown that Carnitine and its acyl are radical scavengers and iron chelators, and hence act as antioxidants.

L-Carnitine supplementation may improve mental and physical performance and can be used to achieve optimum health. Currently, L-Carnitine does not appear on the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned substances list as it is naturally occurring constituent of a normal diet. (Reference: Horleys intelligent sports nutrition website) (Link: http://www.horleys.com/Resources/Resources/Resources%20-%20L-Carnitine%20-%20A%20Sports%20Nutrition%20Perspective)

L-carnitine is the nutrient that transports fatty acids to the mitochondria for use as a fuel source, and research shows that muscle carnitine levels are rapidly depleted during exercise, even moderate exercise. A number of published studies on athletes have shown that l-carnitine supplementation supports exercise performance. Athletes have a requirement for more carnitine than they are capable of producing endogenously (inside the body). (Reference: Hammer Nutrition website)  (Link: http://www.hammernutrition.com/knowledge/l-carnitine-is-it-good-or-bad-for-your-heart.17139.html?sect=blog-section)

L-carnitine may be particularly important during periods of intense exercise as it may help to reduce post-exercise lactic acid accumulation and may increase maximal work output. It may also preserve muscle glycogen levels during exercise. As reported in the majority of studies, an increase in maximal oxygen consumption and a lowering of the respiratory quotient indicate that dietary l-carnitine has the potential to stimulate lipid metabolism (e.g. the utilization of fatty acids for fuel). Treatment with l-carnitine has also been shown to induce a significant post-exercise decrease in plasma lactate, which is formed and used continuously under fully aerobic conditions. Data from preliminary studies have indicated that l-carnitine supplementation can attenuate the deleterious effects of hypoxic (low oxygen) training and speed up recovery from exercise stress. Recent data have indicated that l-carnitine plays a decisive role in the prevention of cellular damage and favorably affects recovery from exercise stress. Additionally, among its other benefits for brain, body composition, and mitochondrial health, l-carnitine is essential for normal heart function. (Reference: Hammer Nutrition website)

(Link: http://www.hammernutrition.com/knowledge/l-carnitine-is-it-good-or-bad-for-your-heart.17139.html?sect=blog-section)

Importance of L-Carnitine for Athletes:

Although, Carnitine is both biosynthesized and supplied in the diet, there is a need for supplementary Carnitine in some conditions:

In competitive athletes, intensive endurance efforts (cycling stage races, repeated long-distance runs, etc.) cause a clearly detectable L-Carnitine deficiency in the muscles. Supplementation can have a positive effect on athletic exercise capacity and can help to maintain fitness, enhance detoxification and aid faster recovery.

An unbalanced diet with a low intake of L-Carnitine and/or of one of its precursors often leads to a deficiency in L-Carnitine. It is evident that some vegetarian competitive athletes are Carnitine deficient.

To produce L-Carnitine endogenously, lysine, methionine, niacin, vitamin B6, Vitamin C and iron are required. L-Lysine is the backbone of Carnitine and diets low in lysine can lead to Carnitine deficiency. In addition, methionine, vitamin C and iron deficiency can cause significant drop in Carnitine levels in the body. (Reference: Horleys inteligent sports nutrition website)

(Link: http://www.horleys.com/Resources/Resources/Resources%20-%20L-Carnitine%20-%20A%20Sports%20Nutrition%20Perspective)

L-carnitine may be particularly important during periods of intense exercise as it may help to reduce post-exercise lactic acid accumulation and may increase maximal work output. It may also preserve muscle glycogen levels during exercise. As reported in the majority of studies, an increase in maximal oxygen consumption and a lowering of the respiratory quotient indicate that dietary l-carnitine has the potential to stimulate lipid metabolism (e.g. the utilization of fatty acids for fuel). Treatment with l-carnitine has also been shown to induce a significant post-exercise decrease in plasma lactate, which is formed and used continuously under fully aerobic conditions. Data from preliminary studies have indicated that l-carnitine supplementation can attenuate the deleterious effects of hypoxic (low oxygen) training and speed up recovery from exercise stress. Recent data have indicated that l-carnitine plays a decisive role in the prevention of cellular damage and favorably affects recovery from exercise stress. Additionally, among its other benefits for brain, body composition, and mitochondrial health, l-carnitine is essential for normal heart function. (Reference: Hammer Nutrition website)

(Link: http://www.hammernutrition.com/knowledge/l-carnitine-is-it-good-or-bad-for-your-heart.17139.html?sect=blog-section)

L-carnitine may be particularly important during periods of intense exercise as it may help to reduce post-exercise lactic acid accumulation and may increase maximal work output. It may also preserve muscle glycogen levels during exercise. As reported in the majority of studies, an increase in maximal oxygen consumption and a lowering of the respiratory quotient indicate that dietary l-carnitine has the potential to stimulate lipid metabolism (e.g. the utilization of fatty acids for fuel). Treatment with l-carnitine has also been shown to induce a significant post-exercise decrease in plasma lactate, which is formed and used continuously under fully aerobic conditions. Data from preliminary studies have indicated that l-carnitine supplementation can attenuate the deleterious effects of hypoxic (low oxygen) training and speed up recovery from exercise stress. Recent data have indicated that l-carnitine plays a decisive role in the prevention of cellular damage and favorably affects recovery from exercise stress. Additionally, among its other benefits for brain, body composition, and mitochondrial health, l-carnitine is essential for normal heart function. (Reference: Hammer Nutrition website)

(Link: http://www.hammernutrition.com/knowledge/l-carnitine-is-it-good-or-bad-for-your-heart.17139.html?sect=blog-section)

Importance of L-Carnitine for Athletes:

Although, Carnitine is both biosynthesized and supplied in the diet, there is a need for supplementary Carnitine in some conditions:

In competitive athletes, intensive endurance efforts (cycling stage races, repeated long-distance runs, etc.) cause a clearly detectable L-Carnitine deficiency in the muscles. Supplementation can have a positive effect on athletic exercise capacity and can help to maintain fitness, enhance detoxification and aid faster recovery.

An unbalanced diet with a low intake of L-Carnitine and/or of one of its precursors often leads to a deficiency in L-Carnitine. It is evident that some vegetarian competitive athletes are Carnitine deficient.

To produce L-Carnitine endogenously, lysine, methionine, niacin, vitamin B6, Vitamin C and iron are required. L-Lysine is the backbone of Carnitine and diets low in lysine can lead to Carnitine deficiency. In addition, methionine, vitamin C and iron deficiency can cause significant drop in Carnitine levels in the body. (Reference: Horleys inteligent sports nutrition website)  (Link: http://www.horleys.com/Resources/Resources/Resources%20-%20L-Carnitine%20-%20A%20Sports%20Nutrition%20Perspective)

Individuals with different physiological conditions (fasting, malnutrition, obesity, infertility in males, dialysis patients, muscle diseases, and hospitalised patients receiving total parental nutrition), may need supplementary L-Carnitine. (Reference: Horleys inteligent sports nutrition website)  (Link: http://www.horleys.com/Resources/Resources/Resources%20-%20L-Carnitine%20-%20A%20Sports%20Nutrition%20Perspective)

During strenuous physical exercise, the body requires large amounts of glucose and fatty acids to produce energy. L-carnitine has been shown to reduce the respiratory quotient (RQ) in athletes. A lower RQ reflects more fatty acid burning and less glucose utilization. This glucose-sparing effect helps delay the onset of exhaustion and enhances performance. Improved performance has been confirmed by the improved VO2 Max (a measure of maximal aerobic capacity) of athletes using L-carnitine.

Dr. William Kraemer, from the Ball State Human Performance Laboratory, presented the results of a study on muscle soreness in “weekend warrior” athletes. It showed that L-carnitine tartrate, prior to high intensity exercise, is effective in assisting muscle recovery and reducing muscle soreness following exercise. (Reference: Nutrition Express website)  (Link: http://www.nutritionexpress.com/article+index/vitamins+supplements+a-z/l-carnitine/showarticle.aspx?id=89)

L-Carnitine supplementation can increase l-carnitine levels in muscles and boost athletic endeavour, UK researchers have found after a 30-year search to locate the optimum delivery mechanism.

Writing in the Journal of Physiology, the researchers from the School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Nottingham Medical School, said a combination of L-carnitine and carbohydrates delivered the measurable increase and concomitant athletic boost.

“This is the first demonstration that human muscle total carnitine can be increased by dietary means and results in muscle glycogen sparing during low intensity exercise (consistent with an increase in lipid utilisation) and a better matching of glycolytic, PDC and mitochondrial flux during high intensity exercise, thereby reducing muscle anaerobic ATP production,” they wrote. “Furthermore, these changes were associated with an improvement in exercise performance.”

The researchers emphasised the dual metabolic effect of the L-carnitine supplementation at both low and high-intensity exercise levels, which led to a decrease in muscle lactate accumulation. Participants also registered lower perceived exertion as well as increased work output. (Reference: Nutra Ingredients website)  (Link: http://www.nutraingredients.com/Research/30-years-later-L-carnitine-supplementation-can-boost-athletic-performance

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